Causes of HPV The virus that causes HPV infection is transmitted through skin-to-skin contact. Most people get genital HPV infection through direct sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Because HPV is a skin-to-skin infection, you don't need to have sex for transmission to occur. HPV infection is a viral infection that usually causes growths on the skin or mucous membranes (warts).
There are more than 100 varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV). Some types of HPV infection cause warts and others can cause different types of cancer. HPV can cause cervical and other cancers, such as cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis or anus. It can also cause cancer in the back of the throat (called oropharyngeal cancer).
This may include the base of the tongue and tonsils. Almost everyone will get HPV at some point in their lives. HPV spreads through intimate skin-to-skin contact. You can get HPV if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex with a person who has the virus, even if you don't have signs or symptoms.
Genital HPV spreads through contact (contact) with the skin of a person who has an HPV infection. Contact includes vaginal, anal and oral sex. Some types of HPV cause genital warts, which are hard, rough bumps that grow on the skin. Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV and genital warts.
HPV infects the squamous cells that line the inner surfaces of these organs. For this reason, most HPV-related cancers are a type of cancer called squamous cell carcinoma. Some cervical cancers stem from HPV infection of the cells of the glands of the cervix and are called adenocarcinomas. High-risk HPV infection usually doesn't cause symptoms.
Precancerous cell changes caused by persistent HPV infection in the cervix rarely cause symptoms, which is why regular screening for cervical cancer is important. Precancerous lesions in other parts of the body may cause symptoms such as itching or bleeding. And if an HPV infection develops into cancer, the cancer can cause symptoms such as bleeding, pain, or swelling of the glands. Learn more about the signs and symptoms of cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and oropharynx.
A large study of vaccinated women showed a nearly 90% reduction in cervical cancer. Screening tests are used to detect the disease when there are no symptoms. The goal of cervical cancer screening is to detect changes in precancerous cells at an early stage, before they develop into cancer and when treatment can prevent the cancer from developing. Cervical cancer takes 15 to 20 years to develop in women with normal immune systems.
It may only take 5 to 10 years in women with weakened immune systems, such as those with untreated HIV infection. There are currently 4 vaccines that have been pre-qualified by WHO, all of them protecting against HPV types 16 and 18, which are known to cause at least 70% of cervical cancers. 9-valent vaccine protects against 5 additional oncogenic HPV types, which cause 20% more cervical cancers. Two of the vaccines also protect against HPV types 6 and 11, which cause anogenital warts.
Screening should begin at age 30 in the general population of women, with regular screening with a validated HPV test every 5 to 10 years, and starting at age 25 for women living with HIV. Women living with HIV also need to be screened more frequently, every 3 to 5 years. The World Health Assembly adopted the global strategy to accelerate the elimination of cervical cancer as a public health problem. The definition of elimination of cervical cancer has been established as a country that reaches the threshold of less than 4 cases of cervical cancer per 100,000 women per year.
To reach this threshold by the end of the 21st century, WHO has set targets 90-70-90 to be achieved by 2030 and maintained (AMS 73, (. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a common sexually transmitted infection that shares the same name. .