About 40 types can infect the genital area, vulva, vagina, cervix, rectum, anus, penis and scrotum, as well as the mouth and throat. These types of HPV are transmitted during sexual contact. Not all 40 sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses cause serious health problems. You can get HPV if you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex with a person who has the virus.
It is most often transmitted during vaginal or anal intercourse. It also spreads through close skin-to-skin contact during sexual intercourse. A person with HPV can transmit the infection to another person even if they have no signs or symptoms. Infection with low-risk types of HPV can cause external genital warts.
Low-Risk HPV (PVLR): HPV 6 and HPV 11 cause approximately 90% of genital warts and are rarely associated with precancer or cancer of the lower genital tract. Discover information about different types of cancer Learn about cancer, diagnosis, treatment and coping %26 survival Find resources %26 tools for oncology health professionals Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that are named for their ability to cause warts, also known as papillomas. In reality, not all types of HPV cause warts. There are more than 200 types (or strains) of HPV, of which about 40 can be sexually transmitted.
Most strains of HPV don't cause problems, but several can cause genital warts, and 12 types are known to cause cancer. Genital HPV infection is very common, affecting about 80 million Americans throughout their lives. People who are sexually active have an 80-85% chance of becoming infected with HPV at some point in their lives. Different strains of HPV are classified as low or high risk.
HPV-6 and HPV-1 may cause genital warts or no symptoms. HPV types 16 and 18 are examples of high-risk strains and are the cause of about 70 percent of cervical cancers. However, most women with HPV do not develop cervical cancer. It is important to know that the vast majority of high-risk HPV infections go away on their own (usually eliminated by the immune system within 2 years) and therefore do not lead to cancer.
High-risk HPV infection may or may not cause symptoms. However, if the infection persists for years, it can lead to cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and rarer forms of cancer, such as cancer of the vulva, vagina and anus in women. In men, it can cause cancer of the anus and penis. Vaginal intercourse and anal penetration seem to be the easiest ways to spread the infection, but they are not necessary to transmit the virus.
Skin to skin genital contact and oral sex can also spread the virus. Masturbation with a partner may even be enough to transmit the virus, since HPV can be detected on the fingertips of women and men who have genital warts. Anal HPV infection is common among men who have receptive anal intercourse with other men (although the risk applies to anyone who has receptive anal intercourse). Because of this increased risk, some clinics perform anal Pap smears on people at high risk to evaluate precancerous changes.
It seems that the immune system can eliminate the active infection, but that the virus remains inactive and can reactivate at times of decreased immunity. The vast majority (more than 90%) of infections go away on their own, but people with active infections that persist after 2 years have the highest risk of progression to cancer. The key is that these women (since we don't currently test for HPV in men) should be vigilant with follow-up and annual Pap smears to allow any precancerous changes to be detected early, when it's easier to treat. Risk factors for HPV infection include being sexually active, although this is not limited to sexual intercourse.
People most at risk of HPV infection include those with a history of many sexual partners (or partners with many partners), early age at first sexual intercourse, and a history of other sexually transmitted infections. HPV infection can occur in both male and female genital areas, as well as in the scrotum and vulva. The degree of protection provided by condoms to prevent HPV infection is unknown, but using condoms and wearing dental dams (during oral sex) may reduce the rate of HPV transmission. Interestingly, men who are circumcised have a lower rate of HPV infection (and lower rates of other sexually transmitted diseases), although circumcision is not specifically recommended for HPV prevention.
However, HPV vaccination is recommended as prevention (see below). Because most people's immune systems are able to clear the virus, the risk of transmission may be lower for couples who wait longer to have sex or have longer periods of abstinence between relationships, giving their bodies time to clear any infections before they get rid of any infections before they get rid of any infections. start a new sexual relationship. The risk is also lower for long-term monogamous couples.
In general, HPV infection lasts about 1 year in women and can last as little as 6 months in men, but this can vary by strain. Shorter gaps between relationships may allow infection to jump between partners, while longer periods of abstinence allow the infection to clear up between sexual encounters. The HPV vaccine protects against infection with certain strains of HPV that can cause cervical, vaginal, vulvar and anal cancer and genital warts. 3 HPV vaccines are produced, however, in the United States, only Gardasil 9 is available.
This vaccine does not treat cancer. Women who receive the vaccine should have a Pap smear as recommended by their provider, because it does not protect against all types of HPV. HPV-16 and HPV-18 are responsible for most cases of cervical cancer. HPV-6 and HPV-11 cause about 90% of genital warts.
It is important to remember that the HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV or other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV. The HPV vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV that lead to cervical cancer, so women should be screened regularly, even after receiving the vaccine. Women who are at high risk for cervical cancer may need to be screened more often. Women at high risk may include those with HIV infection, organ transplantation, or exposure in utero to the drug DES.
They should talk to their doctor or nurse for specific recommendations. There is no approved screening test for early signs of cancer of the penis, vulva, head and neck or anus. It is recommended that you perform a routine examination of these areas and inform your provider of any changes. However, as mentioned above, men who have receptive anal sex or women with cervical dysplasia or HIV may benefit from the anal Pap smear.
Learn more about this exam on the UCSF Anal Neoplasia Research Treatment Group %26 website. There is no medical treatment for HPV infections, but cervical injuries and warts that can result from HPV infections are treatable. Options for treating precancerous cervical lesions include cryosurgery (freezing), the electrosurgical excision procedure with a loop (LEEP), which involves the use of a special wire loop to remove abnormal cells, and conization, surgical removal of a tapered part of the cervix. Skin warts can be treated with prescription creams or.
HPV viruses are extremely common in the general population and can spread through skin-to-skin contact, including all forms of sexual contact. Most HPV infections are easily eliminated by the body's immune system, but some can persist and it is these that can cause cancer. We still don't fully understand why some people can't get rid of the virus or all the ways the virus can spread. When high-risk HPV infections persist, they can cause cancer in the anal and genital regions, as well as in the head and neck.
The goal of HPV vaccination is to prevent infection with the virus, which decreases the occurrence of cervical and anal cancer, but vaccination is not a cure, since vaccines do not cover all strains of the virus. It is also to be seen if HPV vaccination can also prevent other forms of cancer. Get the latest resources and updates in your inbox. Human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States.
About 80% of women will get at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. 1 It is usually spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Many women don't know they have HPV because it usually doesn't have symptoms and it usually goes away on its own. Some types of HPV can cause diseases such as genital warts or cervical cancer.
There is a vaccine to help prevent HPV. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world. You are likely to get some form of HPV in your life and not have any symptoms. Most people don't have any problems with the virus.
If you get HPV 6 or HPV 11, your doctor may prescribe medications such as imiquimod (Aldara, Zyclara) or podofilox (Condylox). There is not enough research to show if the HPV vaccine is safe for pregnant and breastfeeding women. As mentioned earlier, 80 million Americans have HPV right now, and 14 million new diagnoses are expected each year. There is no FDA-approved test to detect changes in cells in the anus, penis, or head and neck caused by HPV.
And about 70 percent of cancers of the head and neck or oropharynx (including the tonsils, soft palate, and base of the tongue) are HPV-related. At Yale Medicine, a multidisciplinary group of experts is actively investigating HPV infection and associated diseases. People who are already in a long-term, mutual monogamous relationship are unlikely to get a new HPV infection. If you are 45 or younger and have never had an HPV vaccine or did not get all your HPV vaccines, ask your doctor or nurse about getting vaccinated.
In both sexes, HPV has been associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, particularly within the oropharynx (areas in the back of the mouth, base of tongue, and tonsils). There are more than 100 different types of HPV, each of which is assigned a number (called the HPV type). In fact, HPV-associated head and neck cancers are increasing, while rates of head and neck cancers related to smoking and alcohol are declining. Although infection with high-risk strains of HPV can cause cancer, most people infected with these strains do not develop cancer.